see also APA In-Text Citations, APA Basic Principles


- For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s);
- For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus “et al.”


1 author:

Citation in parentheses 
(Name, year)

(Kowalski, 2021)

Narrative citation:
Last name (year)

Kowalski (2021)


2 authors:

Citation in parentheses:
(Last name of first author & Last name of the second author, year)

(Kowalski & Malicki, 2020)

Narrative citation:

First author’s last name and Second author’s last name (year)

Kowalski and Malicki (2020)

Note: In parenthetical citations, the ampersand (“&”) sign is used; however, in narrative citations, authors’ names are joined by the conjunction “and”.


3 or more authors:

Citation in parentheses:
(Name of first author et al., year)

(Kowalski et al., 2020)

Narrative citation:
Name of first author et al. (year)

Kowalski et al. (2020)


 Verbatim quotations of up to 40 words:

When quoting verbatim from a text of less than 40 words, the quotation should be enclosed in inverted commas. The quotation should be immediately followed by a parenthesis with a bibliographic reference to the source of the quotation, or a parenthesis with a page reference if the source of the quotation is given before the quotation is introduced.


According to Marciniak (2022), “e-learning can be as effective and high quality as face-to-face learning” (p. 51).

Some authors believe that “e-learning can be as effective and high-quality as face-to-face learning” (Marciniak, 2022, p. 51)


Verbatim quotations of more than 40 words:

When quoting verbatim text of more than 40 words, distinguish it as a separate block of text preceded and followed by a line of space. The entire quotation should be indented (5 spaces) and not enclosed in inverted commas. The bibliographic reference (or a parenthesis with the page if the source of the quotation is given before it is introduced) should be placed at the end of the quotation, after the last punctuation mark.

According to Marciniak (2020):

Online education offers various tools that can be used to obtain information about the learner and about his/her quality of learning and progress. Their selection and use depend mainly on the type of competencies to be assessed and the purpose and type of assessment (initial, continuous, or final). (p. 22).


Website citations

When citing information from a website, give the name of the author and the year of publication. If there is no name, give the title and year of publication. If there is no year, the date of downloading from the internet:

The Quality of Online Learning (2020) is dedicated to the topic mentioned above.


Order of citations:

If more than one work is cited in the same set of brackets in the text of an article, citations should be listed in alphabetical order, then from oldest to newest for works by the same autgor and should by separated by a semicolon.

(Bednarczyk, 2013; Kowalski & Lechon, 2017; Opolski et al., 2016).
(Marciniak, 2015; 2018)
(Marciniak, 2018a; 2018b)


Citation of a work without an identified author:

If a paper does not have an indicated author, the in text citation gives the title of the paper instead of the author’s name.

(Managing in Crisis, 2017)


Citing a work without a publication date

If a paper has no year of publication or publication date, in-text citations give the author and the abbreviation n.d.

(Janik, n.d.)


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